Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. and Revelation

Prophet Muhammad’s Reception of Revelation

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

According to Islamic records, whenever the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. received revelation, except when he dreams it or when the Angel Gabriel comes to him in the form of a man, he would be left with signs of physical discomfort or experience tremendous physical difficulty. To the disbeliever and those critical of Islam, these are signs of a person with psychological problems but to the believer and faithful in the divine, these are signs of a true prophet who walks on the physical plane of existence with a pure heart that is attuned to metaphysical reality whose sublime force leaves noticeable traces on his physical being.

Imagine that as a common man you suddenly receive a special letter or a message from your King or the President of your country, would you not experience utter trepidation as you process the information? Now imagine receiving a special message from the Supreme Creator of the unimaginable universe. What manner of emotional reaction would you experience in such a situation? If you think that you will not feel anything or experience any emotional distress, then you might as well become a wall or a statue of stone with no feelings and emotions.

The Prophet Muhammad’s first revelation:

“The first [kind] of revelation to which the Apostle of God was initiated was the true dream during sleep; and he never saw a dream but it came like the dawn of the mourn (with the clearness of light after darkness). Thereafter the solitude became dear unto him, and he withdrew into seclusion in the cave of Hira’ and there applied himself to ardent devotions. – that is worship – during many nights ere he went home and provided himself with food therefore; then he would return unto Khadijah and provide himself with food for a similar [number of days] – until the truth came unto him whilst he was in the cave of Hira: the angel came unto him and said: “Read! – He said: “I am not of those who read.”
He said [in his narrative]: Then he took me and pressed me until all the strength went out of me; thereupon he released me and said: “Read!” And I said: “I am not of those who read.” Then he took me and pressed me a third time; thereupon he released me and said: “Read in the name of thy Sustainer Who hath created – created man from a clot! Read! And thy Sustainer is the Most Bountiful!”
And thus the Apostle of God returned, his heart trembling, and came unto Khadijah bint Khuwailid and said: “Wrap me up! Wrap me up!” And they wrapped him up until the awe left him. Then he told Khadijah what happened and said unto her: “Verily, I fear for myself.”- Thereupon Khadijah said: “Nay, by God! Never will God humiliate thee! Behold, thou fulfillest the duties of kinship, and supportest the weak, and bringest gain to the destitute, and art bounteous toward a guest, and helpest those in genuine distress.” [1]

In the Prophet’s first experience of revelation after “al-ru’ya al-salihah fi al-nawm” (the true dream during sleep), he felt like every breath had left him: “Then he took me and pressed me until all strength went out of me…” After the surreal and unearthly ordeal in the cave, he hurried back home to his wife with his heart trembling and he asked his beloved wife Khadijah to wrap him up.

It is clear that when the Prophet first received God’s Word, His revelation, it was truly a mentally and physically strenuous and even devastating experience for him. The detractor will query, “Why did the Prophet fear the divine? Is this not evidence that he actually experienced demonic possession rather than receiving God’s revelation?”

Renowned Christian writer and former nun, Karen Armstrong certainly does not believe so. To her, the Prophet’s s.a.w. reaction was completely natural for a human being on the physical plane. To her, when the divine was unveiled to him from the metaphysical reality, the weight was such that it was life shattering:

“He was able to hear the divine message. And it’s quite clear that revelation — some of the prophets of Israel had this experience too — is devastating. Not a nice peaceful experience, but something that racks them in every limb. Prophet Jeremiah cried aloud, “Ah God, God, “I can’t speak, I’m a child. Your revelation hurts me in every limb.” Isaiah, when he saw his vision of God in the temple, said, I’m dead. I have looked on the Lord of Hosts.” This is a lethal power because the impact of what’s coming through is shattering. Your world as it was before goes.” [2] *

The Nazareth Inscription

Does the “Nazareth Inscription” confirm the resurrection?

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

    Some hours ago, an article dated April 1st, 2015 that makes the bold claim that “Caesar confirmed the resurrection” was brought to my attention.* The article is written by Henry B. Smith Jr. who earned his MAR (Master of Arts in Religion) from Westminster Theological Seminary in Philadelphia and is the director of development for the Associates of Biblical Research. In the article, he confidently claims that the so called “Nazareth Inscription” was enacted by Claudius Caesar and it confirms the Christian belief regarding the resurrection of Jesus. What follows is an examination of this claim.

The “Nazareth Inscription” is in Greek but scholars believe that it was translated from Latin. [1] The scanned image below is a transcription of the Greek and its translation by the late premiere Textual Critic Bruce Metzger.

Metzger, B. M. (1980). New Testament Studies: Philological, Versional, and Patristic. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill. p. 76

Metzger, B. M. (1980). New Testament Studies: Philological, Versional, and Patristic. Leiden, The Netherlands: E. J. Brill. p. 76

“It is my pleasure that graves and tombs—whoever has made them as a pious service for ancestors or children or members of their house—that these remain unmolested in perpetuity. But if any person lay information that another either has destroyed them, or has in any other way cast out the bodies which have been buried there, or with malicious deception has transferred them to other places, to the dishonor of those buried there, or has removed the headstones or other stones, in such a case I command that a trial be instituted, just as if they were concerned with the gods for the pious services of mortals. For beyond all else it shall be obligatory to honor those who have been buried. Let no one remove them for any reason. if anyone does so, however, it is my will that he shall suffer capital punishment on the charge of tomb-robbery.” [2]

Upon close inspection and reading of the “Nazareth Inscription” above, one can safely conclude that it proves nothing concerning the resurrection. Firstly, we do not know for certain that this inscription actually originates from Nazareth as pointed out by Prof. Bruce Metzger: “Nothing is recorded of its previous history except a brief note in Froehner’s handwritten inventory: “Dalle de Marbre envoyee de Nazareth en 1878.” One should observe that the dote does not say “discovered at Nazareth , but “sent from Nazareth.” Whether the marble slab had been erected originally at Nazareth, or had been brought there from some other locality, either in antiquity or in modern times, is quite unknown. In the 1870’s Nazareth (like Jerusalem) was a natural market for dealers in antiquities.” [3] 

Mark Chancey believes that it is likely that it originated in or near Galilee, but he offers no corroborating evidence for this claim. Though we respect his scholarly credentials, that is but guesswork. But despite his conjecture on the likelihood of the inscription’s Galilean origin, he does essentially agree with Metzger that the document that accompanied the inscription says that it was sent from Nazareth and not that it had actually been discovered there:

“Yet, as has often been pointed out, the inscription’s sparse accompanying documentation said only that it had been sent from Nazareth, not that it had been found there. Since Nazareth was heavily involved in the European antiquities trade, it would have been a natural place for the inscription’s finder to take it. Theoretically, it could have come from anywhere; other proposed places of origin include Samaria and Asia Minor.” [4]

And so based on Froehner’s handwritten document, the item containing the inscription may well have been auctioned or sold in Nazareth by one of its many antique dealers and purchased there but not actually originating from the place. As Chancey points out, the item may have originated from Samaria or Asia Minor. In Craig A. Evans’ (a prominent Christian evangelical New Testament scholar) estimation, the slab of marble bearing the inscription is not from Nazareth at all:

“The very interesting “Nazareth Inscription” (SEG VIII 13), which records Caesar’s decree against grave robbery and vandalism, though discovered in Nazareth, is in fact of unknown provenance. In all probability it had not been set up in or near Nazareth.” [5]

Islamic State (Dar al-Islam)

What is an Islamic State?

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

The term Islamic State may be variously translated as ‘dar al-Islam’, ‘bilad al-islam’ or ‘dawla islamiyyah’ in Arabic or juristic (fiqhi) terminology.

Many Muslims today believe that in order for a territory to be counted as an Islamic State, one of its essential features is that it must necessarily feature the Islamic penal code (hudud) as part and parcel of its legal system. This view corresponds to Mawdudi’s:

“The Qur’an not only lays down principles of morality and ethics, but also gives guidance in the political, social and economic fields. It prescribes punishment for certain crimes and enunciates principles of monetary and fiscal policy. These cannot be translated into practice unless there is a State to enforce them. And herein lies the necessity of an Islamic State.” [1]

John 5:23 fails the Trinitarian

Does John 5:23 command the Johannine community to worship Jesus as they worship the Father?

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

Many Trinitarians quickly shout “Jesus is God” when they encounter John 5:23 which says, “that all may honour the son as they honour the Father. Whoever does not honour the Son does not honour the Father who sent him.”

Firstly, the word honour does not mean worship. The original word in the verse in Greek is ‘timosi’ which comes from the root ‘timao’. If the word means worship, then Acts 28:10 means that Christians were being worshipped by the grateful islanders of Malta as the word ‘honoured’ (etimesan) that occurs in the verse comes from the same root as ‘timosi’ in John 5:23. So what does ‘timao’ really mean? Let us consult Thayer’s Lexicon to get a better picture of the meaning of the word.

“2. to honor [so uniformly A. V.), to have in honor, to revere, venerate; Sept. for בִּבֵּד : God, Mt. xv. 8; Mk. vii. 6; Jn. v.23; viii. 49; Christ, Jn. v. 23; parents, Mt. xv. 4 sq.; xix. 19; Mk. vii. 10; x. 19; Lk. xviii. 20; Eph. vi. 2; other men, 1 Tim. v. 3; 1 Pet. ii. 17; with πολλαῖς τιμαῖς added, to honor with many honors, Acts xxviii. 10; of God, rewarding Christians with honor and glory in his kingdom, Jn. xii. 26.” [1]

So, according to Thayer’s Lexicon, the word in question is applicable to God, to Jesus, to parents and ordinary men. But what does it mean then to “honour” (revere or venerate as alternatively suggested by Thayer’s Lexicon) Jesus as believers honour the Father? Well, as typical as Trinitarians are in chopping up verses to create a patchwork theology, they do so perfectly here. They cut up the verse and let people only hear the first sentence and ignore the second which belongs in the same verse. The second sentence that says, “Whoever does not honour the Son does not honour the Father who sent him.” explains the first sentence, that is, just as believers would obey the Father, as Jesus is His instrument, His mouthpiece, His spokesperson, His emissary, His ambassador, His agent (and I don’t think I can make this point clearer with anymore synonyms) and His messenger, they must obey Jesus too. By obeying Jesus as one’s master, one reveres him and in doing so one reveres, that is, obeys the One that sent Him. Additionally, the second verse shows the clear relationship between Jesus and the Father. While Jesus is the inferior who is dispatched (sent), the Father is the superior who sent him. A prophet is never equal to the God that sends him. To suggest otherwise is to completely make senseless the very meaning of the word prophet or ‘navi’ in Hebrew.

An examination of Jeremiah 8:8

Qur’an 5:44, Jeremiah 8:8, the scribes and the corrupted Torah

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

“The Bible has noble poetry in it; and some clever fables; and some blood-drenched history; and a wealth of obscenity; and upwards of a thousand lies.” – Mark Twain, Letters from the Earth

One of the brothers on my Facebook friends list requested that I clarify Jeremiah 8:8 for him and so the following is a an exposition on the text of Jeremiah 8:8. My interest in the verse piqued when I saw Shabir Ally (now Dr. Shabir Ally) referring to the text in a debate that he had with the irascible Christian missionary Sam Shamoun some 16 years ago. In the debate, during the rebuttal period, Dr. Shabir laments against Shamoun’s accusation against him that he was using an outrageous commentary of Jeremiah 8:8 that he took out of his hat as how a charlatan or a magician might take a rabbit out of his top hat. Dr. Shabir Ally points out, in the rebuttal period, that the interpretation that he offered was not his, but rather, the words and scholarly testimony that are found in the preface of ‘The Bible in Living English’. Indeed, the comments come from scholar and Bible translator Steven Byngton in his book ‘The Bible in Living English’:

“Sometimes even intentional changes were made. Jeremiah 8:8 says that in Jeremiah’s time the commonly accepted copies of the law of Moses were so incorrect as to contain substantial falsehoods: Jeremiah’s words seem to mean that the false matter had been willfully put in; and it would be hard to prove that our copies of the law are not made from the ones that were commonly accepted in Jeremiah’s time.” [1]

In Shamoun’s own rebuttal period, he dismisses Dr. Shabir’s reference as valueless as it comes from the Jehovah’s Witnesses. Never mind the genetic fallacy of such an uncouth approach, we shall see that the text and immediate context of Jeremiah 8:8 prove Dr. Shabir’s point and that Byngton’s view is not one that is solitary among Christian Biblical scholars. Some years later, James White came to the scene and wrote a brief attempt at a rebuttal to Dr. Shabir’s use of Jeremiah 8:8. In White’s article, he reasons that, “The context confirms this, for the very next verse says the wise men “have rejected the word of Yahweh,” not that they have somehow managed to corrupt and destroy it. It must exist and be knowable for them to reject it.” [2] Little does White understand, that when someone alters, changes or corrupts any particular message, then by definition he has rejected it. For example, if you send a message to me by mail, then I open it and deliberately make changes and alterations to the original text, I have by doing so rejected the message that I was given. The Christian theologian Paul R. House seems to grasp this point perfectly, “Judah has refused to return to the Lord despite the fact that repentance would be a normal response to their covenant obligations (8:4-7). Why? Because scribes, who were entrusted with transcribing the law, alter it to fit their beliefs (8:8)…Here the law and prophets come very close indeed, for the prophet must preach the law that has been neglected, altered and rejected.” [3]

There is no ambiguity in House’s testimony. Judah was reticent to return to the Lord, because the scribes, whose responsibility was to transcribe and preserve the law, “altered it to fit their beliefs.” And this lends much credence to the claim of the Qur’an:

“It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah’s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my ayaat (verses or signs) for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers.” (Surah al-Ma’idah, chapter 5, verse 44)

And according to Mufti Shafi’ Uthmani, in his luminous ‘tafsir’ (commentary) ‘Ma’riful Qur’an’, he comments, “They (the scribes) acted crookedly when they started changing its injunctions…” [4]

An examination of John 8:56-59 and Exodus 3:13-14

Is Jesus Almighty God because he said, “Before Abraham was, I am.”?

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

In this article, we will be exploring John 8 verses 56-59 and Exodus 3, verses 13-14.

Once again, we come to one of the Johannine literature, the Gospel According to John*, to see whether Trinitarians have a good case in using it to deify Jesus and put him on the same pedestal as the Father. Specifically, we shall be looking at a saying that is attributed to Jesus, which supposedly according to Trinitarian interpretation proves Jesus’ Godhood namely, John 8:58, which says,”Before Abraham was, I am.” In order to get a better picture of what is going on in John 8:58, we should examine its immediate context which begins from verse 56 up to the last verse of the chapter, verse 59.

56. Your father Abraham rejoiced that he would see my day. He saw it and was glad.”

57. So the Jews said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?”

58. Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I am.”

59. So they picked up stones to throw at him, but Jesus hid himself and went out of the temple.

(John 8:56-59; English Standard Version)

For the Trinitarian, this is a great proof text of Jesus’ eternal pre-existence and divinity. Typically, the Trinitarian focuses on verses 57, 58 and 59 whilst ignoring the entire context of the passage and most importantly, verse 56, which basically clarifies verse 58. What is even more amazing is that Trinitarians typically side with the opponents of Jesus and in this case, they would agree with their feedback to what Jesus was saying to them. They will agree with verse 57, which to them means that Jesus was claiming pre-existence and they would wholeheartedly agree with verse 59, because that to them is indicative of Jesus claiming divinity and so the verse says that the audience picked up stones to stone him for blasphemy. Well, the only real problem with the Trinitarians siding with Jesus’ enemy’s understanding (or lack thereof) is that in the same chapter, just several verses before this key section, Jesus declares them to be the children of Satan, who are absolute liars: “You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and does not stand in the truth, because there is no truth in him.” (John 8:44) And the truth of Jesus’ declaration or dismissal of their value as witnesses is writ large in verses 56 and 57. So, let’s have a look at these two verses again, but more carefully this time.

56. Your father Abraham rejoiced that he would see my day. He saw it and was glad.”

In this verse, Jesus claims that Abraham was happy that he would have the chance to see the day of Jesus and he did indeed see it and was contented. Now, look at the reply of the false witnesses.

57. So the Jews said to him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have you seen Abraham?”

Biblical Elisha and YHWH butcher little boys

You baldhead!: Young Boys Bullying Prophet Elisha

By Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

In this fascinating story, we read about the great Prophet Elisha who is harassed by 42 naughty children and the reaction that he gives to that, which consequently results into something rather unpalatable to the sensible human observer. Christian missionaries often make a big fuss over supposed rules in the Shari’ah that stipulate the capital punishment for those who offend the person of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. But in this wonderful Biblical story, we see that a most gruesome punishment awaits those who insult a prophet like Elisha. So, I do not think that those Christian missionaries can hold a candle to Muslims and play the holier than thou game when it comes to blaspheming prophets of God.

The story begins thus:

“From there Elisha went up to Bethel. As he was walking along the road, some boys came out of the town and jeered at him. “Get out of here, baldy!” they said. “Get out of here, baldy!” (2 Kings 2:23; New International Version)

Elisha was walking to Bethel and along the way a group of youngsters, who apparently did not like him, started making fun of him and telling him to leave. But there are a couple of problems with the NIV translation of the verse. Firstly, there were 42 individuals in that group that were offending Elisha and so to say that they were just “some boys” is a major understatement. Secondly, the word “boys” is quite inaccurate, because the original Hebrew says “une’arim qetanneem” which means “little children” as the King James Version correctly translates. So, the verse should say that “many little children came out of the town and jeered at him.” We can understand why the NIV and some other translations try to cloud the narrative by inaccurately translating the text: it may well be that the intention is to downplay the seriousness of the story that may put people off. We would heartily agree that it’s wrong for a child or an adult to make fun of others, most especially prophets of God, but in this instance, we have little children, who probably did not know any better and were playing the fool with a visitor. Would you severely punish them just for that? Most reasonable people wouldn’t, but Elisha and the Biblical God most certainly did: