Does the Qur’an misrepresent the Trinity?

Does the Qur’an reject the Trinity?

by Ibn Anwar, BHsc (Hons), MCollT

One of the common objections levelled against the Qur’an is that it misrepresents the doctrine of the Trinity, hence facilitating the way for the Christian polemic that the Qur’an in no way admonishes Christians for their Trinitarian doctrine. There are three verses that are often cited from the Qur’an to support this objection:

“O people of the Book, be not excessive in your Faith, and do not say about Allah anything but the truth. The MasīH ‘Īsā, the son of Maryam, is only a Messenger of Allah, and His Word that He had delivered to Maryam, and a spirit from Him. So, believe in Allah and His Messengers. Do not say “Three”. Stop it. That is good for you. Allah is the only One God. He is far too pure to have a son. To Him belongs what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. And Allah is enough to trust in.” (4:171)

“Surely, disbelievers are those who say, “Allah is the third of the three” while there is no god but One God. If they do not desist from what they say, a painful punishment shall certainly befall such disbelievers.” (5:73)

“And when Allah said, “O ‘Īsā, son of Maryam, did you say to the people: ‘Take me and my mother as gods beside Allah?” He said, “Pure are You, it does not behoove me to say what is not right for me. Had I said it, You would have known it. You know what is in my heart, and I do not know what is in Your’s. You alone have full knowledge of all that is unseen.” (5:116)

We will go through the verses one by one and prove that the Qur’an neither misrepresents nor silently concurs with the Trinity as some Christian detractors frequently claim. We will prove that the Qur’an clearly and explicitly denounces the Trinity in whatever form that it may appear.

“And when Allah said, “O ‘Īsā, son of Maryam, did you say to the people: ‘Take me and my mother as gods beside Allah?” He said, “Pure are You, it does not behoove me to say what is not right for me. Had I said it, You would have known it. You know what is in my heart, and I do not know what is in Your’s. You alone have full knowledge of all that is unseen.” (5:116)

The claim that is made regarding the above verse is that it specifically rejects a kind of Trinity consisting of Jesus, Mary and Allah which is certainly not the Trinity of mainstream Christianity. This claim however is without much substance as the verse does not say that this is any form of a Trinity belonging to any particular sect of Christianity. Secondly, even if one were to agree for the sake of argument that the above verse is indeed referring to a form of Trinity consisting of Jesus, Mary and Allah(that is God) then we will point out that there were such groups that existed which believed in such a doctrine. We will go further into this later in the article. The current verse is essentially denying that neither Jesus nor Mary are divine in any way. Dr. Louay Fatoohi writes:

“Verse 5:116 gives another clear confirmation that Jesus never claimed to be divine, which means he never claimed to be the Son of God. The verse also mentions the fact that many Christians turned Mary also into an object of worship, i.e. made her divine like her son. The worship of Mary or “Mariolatry” is also a concept that is foreign to Jesus’ teachings.” [1]

It should be noted that Catholics themselves do not view the honour that is afforded to Mary the mother of Jesus as an act of worship in the sense of worshipping deity. However, no amount of sophistry on their part can remove Muslim observers from shunning the practices of Catholics in Marian devotion as containing acts of worship that are blasphemous. Protestant Christian observers are found to be in agreement with Muslim commentators in their condemnation of Catholic Marian devotion as heretical and that the attributes given to her raises her  that of a goddess like figure or deity. Christian scholar of Oxford J. Endell Tyler in 1844 published a 384 page long  book on Marian worship entitled The Worship of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Church of Rome Contrary to the Holy Scripture. There was a heresy called the Collyridian heresy which saw Mary as a deity and a goddess. We will go into more details on this group in due course. At this moment we would like to cite Reverend William Palmer who was also a scholar from Oxford of Worcester College who compares the Catholic Marian devotion to the Collyridian heresy:

“In allusion to the Collyridian heresy, which elevated the blessed Virgin into a Deity, you remark, that “this foolish idolatry could hardly have “sprung up, where no sort of veneration had ever been “paid.” (p. 52, 53) Very true: but who supposes that “no sort of veneration had ever been “paid,” or that no sort of veneration is due? All that we contend against, is what the Collyridian heretics practised, and what Romanists follow them in practising, i.e.  worshipping the Virgin with Divive honours; offering to her the same homage and worship which is offered to God.” [2] (Romanist is an alternative label for Catholics)

James White in a debate he had with Roman Catholic apologist Dr. Robert Fastiggi as well as the well known Protestant apologist Walter Martin in a debate he had with Catholic theologian Father Mitch Pacwa both on the subject of Mary clearly agree with the above quotation, that is, Catholics have elevated Mary to the level of deity. [3]

Commenting on the verse, Mawlana Abdul Majid Daryabadi writes:

i.e., as objects of worship and adoration. The reference obviously to the cult of Mary or Madonna – Mariolatry – common to most Christians. Compare the angelical Salutation of the Roman Catholics :-

‘Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the our of our death. Amen.’ And their Angeleo Domino:-

‘Pray for us, O Holy Mother of God.’

And the Prayer of Saint Bernard:-

‘O most pious Virgin Mary! … I cast myself at thy sacred feet, humbly deploring my sins, and beseeching thee to adopt me for thy child, and to take upon thee the care of my eternal salvation.’

And this Litany of the Blessed Virgin :-

‘We fly to thy patronage, O Holy Mother of God! Despise not our petitions in our necessities, but deliver us from all dangers.’

And their Salve Regina :-

‘Hail! Holy Queen, Mother of Mercy, our life, our sweetness and our hope. To thee do we cry, poor banished sons of Eve; to thee do we send up our sighs, mourning and weeping in this valley of tears.’

‘Of the growth of the Marian cults,’ the existence of which is undisputable’ writes a modern Christian scholar ‘alike in the East and in the West after the decision at Ephesus it would be impossible to trace the history …. Popular devotion gradually developed the entire system of doctrine and practice which Protestant controversialists are accustomed to call by the name of Mariolatry.’ (EBr. XIV, p. 1000).

The Anatolian aspiration, according to another distinguished scholar, was to look for the divine nature in a feminine personality, ‘and this was found at last in the idea of the “Mother of God.” It was at Ephesus, the city of the goddess, that the earliest proof is found of an established cult of the Virgin Mary as the Mother of God; and in the Council held at Ephesus in A.D. 431 this cult was definitely established as a feature of the Orthodox ritual.’ (ERE. IX, p. 98). See also P. VI., n. 265. [4]

The verse is sound in its refutation against those who attribute divinity either knowingly or otherwise to Jesus and/or Mary besides Allah.

The second verse that is often used is, “Surely, disbelievers are those who say, “Allah is the third of the three” while there is no god but One God. If they do not desist from what they say, a painful punishment shall certainly befall such disbelievers.” (5:73)

There are usually two main contentions made against the above verse:

  1. The verse is condemning a Trinity which comprises  Mary, Jesus and Allah(or the Father)
  2. The verse is condemning a Trinity which places Allah in the third position

The first contention is without substantiation as nowhere in the passage is there a clear indication that the three consists of Mary, Jesus and Allah. This interpretation is probably influenced by the fact that later in verse 75 it mentions both Jesus and Mary as having the need for food which is indicative of a refutation to deifying both Jesus and Mary. This is actually an unnecessary inference as proven elsewhere in the Qur’an. In Surah al-Nisa’, which is chapter 4, verse  172 just a few verses after the expression “do not say three…Allah is one God” we find that it says that neither Jesus nor the angels would not scorn to be servants of Allah yet there is hardly a single Christian critic which has suggested that the Qur’an teaches a Trinity of God, Jesus and angels. It is worth noting that the Christian scholar Geoffrey Parrinder commenting on 5:116 which we have already discussed writes:

“Christian commentators have often seen in this verse an indication that the Trinity was conceived of as Father, Mother and Son, a divine family. But the Qur’anic verse need not mean that; it is a simple rebuttal of a practice that is repugnant to any monotheist.” [5]

Thus the idea that the Qur’an portrays the Trinity of mainstream Christians as somehow consisting of Father, Son and Holy Spirit is nowhere taught in it.

The second contention is even more without substance nor foundation. The expression ‘thalithu thalatha’ though can be literally rendered as the third of three really just means ‘one of three’ which is why Zafar Ishaq Ansari chose to translate the verse as “Allah is one of the Three” or Abdullah Yusuf Ali who chose to translate it as “Allah is one of three in a Trinity”. Imam al-Qurtubi in his tafsir after citing لَّقَدْ كَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوۤاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ثَالِثُ ثَلاَثَةٍ  and before delving into a long discussion on it succinctly states, “أى أحد ثلاثة which means “that is, one of three”. [6] Is saying that Christians believe/believed that Allah is one of three a misconception of Christian doctrine? No, it is not. Allah is a name which refers to God which is why Christian translators use God in place of Allah in their translations of the Qur’an, e.g. A. J. Arberry in his translation translates the verse as “God is the third of three.” The Arabic Bible translates Genesis 1:1 which says, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” as فِي الْبَدْءِ خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ (transliteration: fil bad’I khaqa Allah al-samawat wal ardh). Thus the Qur’an is essentially saying that they say “God is one of three.” How can this be a misconception of Christian doctrine when Christian doctrine clearly stipulates that of the three each and every single one is God. Does the Qur’an say that God is only the third of three? No, it does not. If one were to favour the literal meaning of the verse and refuse to accept the explanation given by al-Qurtubi and others even then there is no problem at all since the third member of the Trinity in mainstream Christian doctrine is indeed stipulated as God. The verse is clearly negating the idea that God Almighty could possibly exist in any composite of three.

The next verse that we shall look at is as follows:

“O people of the Book, be not excessive in your Faith, and do not say about Allah anything but the truth. The MasīH ‘Īsā, the son of Maryam, is only a Messenger of Allah, and His Word that He had delivered to Maryam, and a spirit from Him. So, believe in Allah and His Messengers. Do not say “Three”. Stop it. That is good for you. Allah is the only One God. He is far too pure to have a son. To Him belongs what is in the heavens and what is in the earth. And Allah is enough to trust in.” (4:171)

By citing classical works of exegesis such as Tafsir al-Jalalayn Christian detractors contend that the above is a refutation of a Trinity which consists of God, the Son and Mary. Firstly, nowhere in the passage is there a clear suggestion that the three is composed of God, the Son and Mary. Secondly, even if we were to agree with the above mentioned interpretation it would not lead us to the predicament that those Christian detractors imagine. There is historical evidence that there were certain sects of Christianity that did believe in a kind of Trinity consisting of God, Jesus and Mary. Commenting on the verse in question the renown orientalist Prof. Montgomery Watt writes:

“all the main forms of Christianity would deny worshipping three gods, though popular practice may come near to doing this. Christians worship God, who is one, and yet also in the same sense threefold. The criticism is thus primarily of a Christian heresy.” [7]

Watt seems to think that because mainstream Christianity identifies itself as monotheism and identifies that God as being only one they are not committing the blasphemy of worshipping three gods. First of all the verse does not say “do not say three gods.” Rather it says “do not say three.” Secondly, just because Trinitarians argue that they do not believe in three gods, but only one yet consists of three persons does not mean that they do not in reality worship three gods as per the Muslim claim. If the Islamic belief concerning Jesus is true which says that he is certainly not God but purely and only a human being chosen by God then in the Islamic perspective the Christians are indeed worshipping more than one God. Under the entry on ‘Tritheism’ and under the sub-heading ‘the charge of tritheism’ in the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Professor of Systematic Theology of Aberdeen University, W. Fulton makes the following remarks:

“The accusation of being tritheistic, which has often been made against Christianity, is in a sense justified. For undoubtedly the doctrine of the Trinity has been, and is still, conceived among simple uneducated Christians in a naively tritheistic way. Sometimes also a naive tritheism is found even in theological statement, as when in so-called transactional theories the Atonement is represented as the result of a bargain between the first and second Persons of the Trinity.” [8]

The author then goes on to say that the Christian religion makes a clear distinction between ‘three gods’ and ‘three persons’ which is a feeble attempt on the part of Christians to exonerate themselves from the charge of being tritheistic. Historical analysis of Jesus’ life by scholars in search of the historical Jesus has yielded positive results for the basic Islamic claim i.e. Jesus was not God, but was merely a human being with a mission. Studies done by Professor Raymond Brown and several other noted Biblical scholars have shown that the Holy Spirit was originally conceived as an independent salvific figure which means that he was not an incorporeal person who was part of some divine Godhead. If these latest findings are true then the attribution of divinity to both Jesus and the Holy Spirit does amount of polytheism, hence making them true tritheists despite their own vehement disapproval of the label along with the meaning it entails. At the end of the discussion on the topic of ‘the charge of tritheism’ W. Fulton rightly remarks:

“So it is not surprising that there has been a strong tendency to tritheism in Western theology, especially among the people; and that non-Christian thinkers, notably Jewish and Muhammad, have so often viewed the doctrine of tri-personality in God as virtual or veiled tritheism” [9]

Thus the amount of sophistry and incoherent word juggling committed by Christians to pass themselves as monotheists is of no consequence. As far as Islam and the Qur’an are concerned worshipping other persons such as Jesus who is clearly defined as a being apart from God and created by Him is clearly tantamount to polytheism and in the case of the Trinity it is tritheism or the worship of three gods.  The historian Edward Gibbon astutely writes, “The three gods in the Koran (c. 4. p. 81. C. 5. P. 92.) are obviously directed against our Catholic mystery;…” [10] Thus according to Gibbon the Qur’an does indeed repudiate mainstream Trinitarian doctrine as a concept of three gods. We will go into more details on this later.

Let us now recapitulate what Watt said:

“The criticism is thus primarily of a Christian heresy.”

Imam Jalaluddin al-Suyuti and Jalaluddin al-Mahalli were not wrong at all to suggest that the ‘three’ consists of God(or the Father), Jesus and Mary because there was indeed a sect in Arabia that subscribed to this doctrine. That heresy which is mentioned by Watt is specifically mentioned by his predecessor and translator of the Qur’an into English George Sale:

“Say not … three, “Namely, God, Jesus, Mary. For the Eastern writers mention a sect of Christians which held the trinity to be composed of those three; but it is allowed that this heresy has been long since extinct  (Elmacin, p. 227).” [11]

They were the Collyridians who did indeed believe that Mary was a Goddess together with the Father and Jesus as Sale writes:

“But, to be more particular as to the nation we are now writing of, Arabia was of old famous for heresies; which might be in some measure attributed to the liberty and independency of the tribes. Some of the Christians of that nation believed the soul died with the body, and was to be raised again with it at the last day: these Origen is said to have convinced. Among the Arabs it was that the heresies of Ebion, Beryllus, and the Nazareans, and also that of the Collyridians, were broached, or at least propagated; the latter introduced the Virgin Mary for God, or worshipped her as such offering her a sort of twisted cake called collyris, whence the sect had its name.

This notion of the divinity of the Virgin Mary was also believed by some at the Council of Nice, who said there were two gods besides the Father viz. Christ and the virgin Mary, and were thence named Mariamites. Others imagined her to be exempt from humanity, and deified; which goes but little beyond the popish superstition in calling her the complement of the Trinity, as if it were imperfect without her. This foolish imagination is justly condemned in the Koran as idolatrous, and gave a handle to Mohammed to attack the Trinity itself.” [12]

The historian Edward Gibbon writes:

“The Christians of the seventh century had insensibly relapsed into a semblance of paganism; their public and private vows were addressed to the relics and images that disgraced the temples of the East: The throne of the Almighty was darkened by a cloud of martyrs , and saints, and angels, the objects of popular veneration; the Collyridian heretics, who flourished in the fruitful soul of Arabia, invested in the Virgin Mary with the name and honours of a goddess.” [13]

Elaborating further on the matter in a footnote to the above Gibbon writes:

“The Collyridian heresy was carried from Thrace to Arabia by some women, and the name was borrowed from the χολλυρις, or cake, which they offered to the goddess. This example, that of Beryllus, bishop of Bostra, (Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 1. Vi. C. 33.) and several others, may excuse the reproach, Arabia haeresean ferax.” [14]

The interpretation that the verse refutes heretical views of God proposed by Imam al-Suyuti and others is based on sound historical basis. Christians should be glad that the Qur’an refutes such concepts which are equally abhorrent to them and to recap what Sale states:

“This foolish imagination is justly condemned in the Koran as idolatrous…”

It is however erroneous to say that the verse addresses only the view that was conceived by Collyridians and those like them. It is equally a protest and a refutation against mainstream Christian Trinitarian view of God. Therefore George Sale correctly remarks:

“The passage, however, is equally levelled against the Holy Trinity, according to the doctrine of orthodox Christians, who, as Al Baidhawi acknowledges, believe the divine nature to consist of three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost…” [15]

Commenting on the verse Mawlana Syed Abul A’la Mawdudi writes:

“The Christians have been rebuked for their wrong belief in the doctrine of the Trinity and advised to refrain from transgression. Strange though it may appear, it is a fact that the Christians believe both in the Oneness of God and in the Trinity at one and the same time; for no Christian can deny that according to the clear sayings of Jesus in the Bible, God is One Being and there is no God than He. But the introduction of the doctrine of the Logos at an early stage of Christianity misled them into believing in the Godhead of Christ in union with God and the Holy Ghost. Since then it has always remained an enigma for them to reconcile these two contradictory doctrines and for the last eighteen hundred years or so the Christian scholars have been vainly engaged in solving this self-created baffling puzzle. Not only this, many Christian denominations have been founded upon different interpretations of this Doctrine and it has given rise to many religious disputes in which one denomination accuses the other of blasphemy. In short, their scholars and interpreters have been spending all their efforts and energies in solving this enigma which has been neither created by God nor by Christ. It is also obvious that there is no solution to it, because no one can prove that three persons share Godhead and also that God is One being and has no partners in His Godhead. As this enigma is the result of their own transgression beyond the Divine limits, it can only be solved if they refrain from going beyond the limits and give up the belief of the Godhead of the Messiah and of the Holy Ghost, and acknowledge Allah as the sole object of worship, adoration and devotion and believe in the Messiah as a Messenger of God and not as a partner in the Godhead of Allah.” [16]

The Qur’anic verse denounces the Trinity in no uncertain terms when it says, “Do not say three.” The verse here is clearly not only against the mere utterance of ‘three’ but also the belief attached to the idea that there is three in God. The verse is a direct condemnation of the belief and not only the verbal utterance that God is three for He is only one. Even so what exactly is the Trinity?

Theologian Dr. Donald K. McKim defines the Trinity as follows:

Trinity, doctrine of the (From Lat. trinitas, “triad”) The Christian Church’s belief that Father, Son and Holy Spirit are three Persons in one Godhead. They share the same essence or substance (Gr. homoousios). Yet they are three “persons” (Lat. personae). God is this way within the Godhead and as known in Christian experience.” [17] (underline emphasis added)

Professor of Theology and Religious Studies John T. Ford defines the Trinity as follows:

“Trinity. This word  (from the Latin trinus, meaning “threefold”) refers to the central mystery of the Christian faith that God exists as a communion of three distinct and interrelated divine persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The doctrine of the Trinity is a mystery that is inaccessible to human reason alone and is known through divine revelation only.” [18] (underline emphasis added)

Oscar Lukefahr writes:

“That there are three persons in one God is a mystery we cannot fully understand, but God has revealed it as the foundational truth of our faith. All truths spring from this essential mystery…We acknowledge one divine nature (substance, essence) and three divine Persons.” [19] (underline emphasis added)

The doctrine of the Trinity in a nutshell is the belief in God in THREE persons. Without the word three the Trinity would cease to exist as Lukefahr stated “that there are three persons in one God…” is the “foundational truth of our faith” from which “all truths spring from…” Any intelligible discussion on the Trinity requires the use of the word three as indicative in the above quotations. The fact that the Qur’an condemns the use of the word “three” to speak of His Being and Person proves that the Qur’an cuts the doctrine at its very roots. It is a concise yet emphatic blow at mainstream Christian doctrine. One might ask why the Qur’an does not specifically mention “three persons” in connection to the Trinty doctrine. The answer to that question is quite simple. One may labour under the impression that there is only one type or form of the Trinity. There are actually numerous different types and forms of the Trinity among Christians. Dr. Louay Fatoohi astutely observes:

“…I think that the Qur’an deliberately ignores naming the members of the Trinity. Verse 4.171 rejects the concept of “three” and verse 5.73 describes that concept as the belief that “Allah is one of three”. What is being rejected, therefore, is not the unity of a particular group of three, but the very concept of threesome – that God is three beings, aspects, manifestations, or whatever. The Qur’an focuses on rejecting the concept of the unity of three rather than who those three are.” [20]

There are many kinds of the Trinity and they include Sebellianism, Modalism, Monarchianism etc. In addition to different types of the Trinity there also doctrines propounded by different groups of Christians that mainstream Christians themselves would term Tritheism. Essentially, the different types of Christian belief in God whether they are different kinds and conceptions of the Trinity or straightforward Tritheism are all founded on the idea that there can be three in divinity.

Discussing Tritheism Fulton writes: “As a definite phase in the history of Christian thought tritheism appeared c. A.D. 550 in Monophysite circles, being associated chiefly with the names of John Askusnages and John Philopon.” [21]

On the Monophysites A. Van Rooney and P. Allen write:

(i) The beginning of tritheism. John Askotzanges

According to Elias of Nisbis, it was in 556/557 that a Jacobite from Apamea, with the soubriquet Muqo d-zeko (Ασκοτζάγγης), began to teach that in God there was the same number of natures as hypostases. Michael the Syrian provides more information about this man:

At that time arose the heresy of the tritheists through John Askotzanges (which is translated Muqo d-zeko). They count in the Trinity a plurality of natures, substances and gods. [22]

Thus there was a belief among Christians that says that there are really three gods.One of them were the Monophysites.In our view they were more forthcoming than mainstream Trinitarians by recognising that worshipping the three persons are akin to worshipping three gods whilst Trinitarians wishing to remain within  the sphere of monotheism as per the dictates of the Old Testament and Jesus weave a convoluted and disingenuous vocabulary hijacking and acrobatics.

Defining Sebellianism Xavier William writes:

Sebellianism: Christian heresy that was a more developed and less naive form of Modalistic Monarchianism (see Monarchianism); it was propounded by Sebellius (c. 217-c.220), who was possible a presbyter in Rome…Sebellius evidently taught that the Godhead is a monad, expressing itself in three operations: as Father, in creation; as Son, in redemption; and as Holy Spirit, in sanctification.” [23] (underline emphasis added)

Doctor of Divinity Samuel Hopkins  writes:

“…Sebellianism; which considers the Deity as but one person, and to be three only out of respect to the different manner or kind of his operations.” [24] (underline emphasis added)

Modalism Tritheism or the Pure Revelation of the Triune God according to the Bible has the following on Modalism:

The Modalistic Concept of the Trinity

According to the Modalistic concept of the Trinity, the Father, the Son, and the Spirit are not equally and eternally co-existent, but are merely three successive manifestations of God, or three temporary modes of His activity. [25] (underline emphasis added)

Scott Dunham writes on Modalism:

“Modalism is a conception of the three persons of the Trinity not as distinctly subsisting persons, but as manifestations of the one God, whether the Father or a divine substance.” [26] (underline emphasis added)

We should also not forget the so called Arian heresy which was taught by Arius in the time of Athanasius the champion of the Trinity. Arius believed in the three persons, yet believed that the Father is superior to the Son who was himself not eternal and who is in turn superior to the Holy Spirit. [27] This is clearly an opposition to Athanasius’ Trinity, hence it is yet another alternative threesome in God believed by Christians.

We have thus far seen many forms of the Trinity(veiled tritheism) and tritheistic Trinity concepts all of which are fundamentally based on the very concept of threesome. Without having to go into the minute and intricate details of each and every single one of those aberrant doctrines the Qur’an succinctly and surely refutes all of them by the simple declaration “Do not say three.” Let us make mention again of what Fatoohi writes:

“What is being rejected, therefore, is not the unity of a particular group of three, but the very concept of threesome – that God is three beings, aspects, manifestations, or whatever.”

In addition, as we have explained earlier Islam does not buy into the sophistry of Trinitarians in trying to pass themselves as monotheists. The fact that Jesus is according to Islam a human being and certainly not God and that the Holy Spirit too is not God in any way makes the Trinity in the eyes of Islam as nothing but veiled tritheism as mentioned by W. Fulton as cited earlier. Fatoohi correctly remarks, “…the Qur’an considers the Tinity a form of tritheism, and no playing with words can make the Trinity a form of monotheism.” [28]

The Qur’an in Surah al-Nisa, chapter four, verse 171 is in no way a misconception and misconstrued depiction of mainstream Christian doctrine as we have clearly illustrated. At this point it would be pertinent to cite Mawlana Abdul Majid Daryabadi’s commentary on the verse:

“Trinity denotes the central doctrine of the Christian religion. It means that God is ‘is three really distinct Persons, – the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Each of these Persons is truly the same God, and has all His infinite perfections, yet He is really distnct from each of the other Persons…. These Persons are co-equal and co-substantial, and deserve co-equal glory and adoration, which the Church expresses in the oft-repeated prayer: “Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.” (CD. p. 973). The Book of Islam ‘found in the dogma of the Trinity what every emancipated thinker finds on impartial reflection – an absurd legend, which is neither reconcilable with the first principles of reason nor of any value whatever for our religious advancement. In the Brahmanic religion the Trimurti is also conceived as a “divine unity” made up of three persons – Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Sustainer), and Shiva (the Destroyer).’ Haeckel, Riddle of the Universe, pp. 226, 223. “They divided the Divine Trinity into three persons, each one of them being God and Lord; and thence a sort of frenzy has gone forth into the whole of theology, and thus into the Church…. It is a frenzy, because the minds of men have been driven by it in to delirium, that they do not know whether there is one God, or whether there are three: there is one in the speech of lips, but three in the thought of the mind.” (Swedenborh, The True Christian Religion, p. 5). ‘The Nicene Creed really ‘teaches three Divine Persons and denies three Gods, and leaves us to guess what else is a divine person but a god or a god but a divine person.” [29]

Yes, the Trinity as conceived by mainstream Christians is refuted by the verse in the Qur’an in question. At the same time it is simultaneously a refutation against other groups of Christians and their own versions of the Trinity and threesome of/in God that have already been enumerated. As a matter of fact this is not the only verse which is an explicit denunciation of the Trinity. Fundamental to the doctrine of the Trinity is the deification of Jesus. If Jesus is not God then the Trinity ceases to exist (though the Trinity certainly does not exist in reality). The Qur’an explicitly declares:

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوۤاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلْمَسِيحُ ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ

“They blaspheme those who say that God is Jesus the son of Mary” (5:72)

The above verse is just before the second verse(5:73) discussed earlier. It is an explicit denunciation of the idea that Jesus is deity which is then a sure blow to the doctrine of the Trinity which is contingent on the alleged deity of Jesus. We need not entertain the meanderings of disingenuous critics who try to argue that the Qur’an supports the deity of Jesus and the Trinity. In our current discussion we have proven that the Qur’an most certainly is a textbook against any attempt to undermine the oneness of Allah and the false deification of Jesus and the belief in the Trinity or any of its alternative forms. Finally, let us conclude our discussion with the words of an impartial observer the well received historian Edward Gibbon who writes:

“The mysteries of the Trinity and Incarnation appear to contradict the principle of the divine unity. In their obvious sense, they introduce three equal deities, and transform the man Jesus into the substance of the Son of God; an orthodox commentary will satisfy only a believing mind: Intemperate curiosity and zeal had torn the veil of the sanctuary; and each of the Oriental sects was eager to confess that all, except themselves, deserved the reproach of idolatry and polytheism. The creed of Mahomet is free from suspicion and ambiguity; and the Qur’an is a glorious testimony to the unity of God. The prophet of Mecca rejected the worship of idols and men, of stars and planets, on the rational principle, that whatever rises must set, that whatever is born must die, that whatever is corruptible must decay and perish. In the author of the universe, his rational enthusiasm confessed and adored an infinite and eternal well being, without form or place, without issue or similitude, present to our most secret thoughts, existing by the necessity of his own nature, and deriving from himself all moral and intellectual perfection. These sublime truths, thus announced in the language of the prophet, are firmly held by his disciples, and defined with metaphysical precision by the interpreters of the Koran.” [30] (emphasis added)


Addendum:

Some of the points elucidated in the above discussion are succinctly mentioned in The Life of Muhammad:

Christian scholars have invariably attacked Islam on the ground that it has missed the nature of trinitarianism. They impute to the Qur’an and to Muhammad the charge of having misunderstood the trinity as consisting of the Father, Mary and Jesus. eg., Gibb’s statement that “the doctrine of the divine Sonship of Jesus is emphatically repudiated, in terms which betray the crassly anthropomorphic form in which it had been presented or presented itself to the Arabs…Mohammed had no direct knowledge of Christian doctrine” (Gibb, H.A.R., Mohammedinism, London: Oxford U. Press, 1954, p. 45). “A more serious confusion occurs, however, when Mary, the mother of Jesus, is admitted into the Trinity in the place of the Holy Spirit – Qur’an 5:76-79, 116 (Donaldson, D.M. , Studies in Muslim Ethics, London: S.P.C.K., 1953, p. 57). Like statements may be read in Guillaume, A., Islam, Edinburgh, Penguin, Paperback, 1956, p. 52-53; Cragg, K., The Call of the Minaret, New York: Oxford University Press paperback 1964, p. 253; etc., etc. These charges are utterly groundless. The Qur’an certainly criticized and condemned trinitarianism – as in 5:171; 5:73; etc. It has certainly criticized and condemned the doctrine of theotokos or “mother of God” as in 5:75-79, 116. These are two distinct criticisms the Qur’an has directed at Christianity. But it has nowehere identified the persons of the trinity as consisting of God, the Father; Jesus, the son; Mary, the mother. The Qur’anic position is simply that whoever and whatever the persons of the Trinity may be, trinitarianism and theotokos are blasphemous compromises of divine transcendence and unity. Condemning the two Qur’anic condemnations, some exegetes had regarded “the Mother of God” as part of “The Trinity”. If this is a mistake, it belongs to those exegetes, not to the Qur’an. Even so, it is no necessarily a mistake. The exegetes’ work constitute evidence of the current tenets of faith of their contemporaries; and there is no apriori evidence that some Near Eastern Christians have not identified the Trinity in these terms. [31] (emphasis added)

As we have seen in our discussion there were indeed Christians who perceived a Trinity of God, Jesus and Mary. We have also noted the good point that even if it was a mistake to propose that the Trinity was ever conceived as consisting of those three then the mistake lies with the exegetes and not with the Qur’an. It is however evidently clear from the above and in the preceding discussion that the Qur’an emphatically denounces the idea that in God there could be a plurality of persons, individuals, beings and so on. The very idea that God could somehow be more than one in whatever shape and form is completely antithesis to the overwhelming testimony of the Qur’an.

Professor of Near Eastern History at the University of Chicago, Fred McGraw Donner who specialises in Isalmic Studies writes:

“But the Qur’an’s strict monotheism also condemns the Christian doctrine of the Trinity as being incompatible with the idea of God’s absolute unity: “Those who say that God is the third of three, disbelieve; there is no God but the one God…” (Q. 5:73).” [32]

Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Rhodes College, John Kaltner writes:

“But in some texts, it is clearly Jews or Christians who are being condemned for their lack of belief. For example, Christians are accused of kufr in 5:73 because of their belief in the Trinity: “Those who say that God is the third of three are unbelievers [kafara]. There is only One God. If they do not desist in what they are saying, the unbelievers among them will experience a painful punishment.” [33]

Dr. Hugh Goddard of the University of Nottingham writes in Jesus: The Complete Guide whose editor is Reverend Professor Leslie Holden who was Chaplain Fellow of Trinity College Oxford and Vicar of Cuddesdon:

“All this is positive, then, but as hinted earlier, there is also a considerable element of qualification, and even of challenge to and denial of several traditional Christian affirmations about Jesus. This can be found in 1935-36, immediately after the Qur’anic story of the miraculous conception and birth of Jesus, which Christians have traditionally taken as a sign or symbol of his being in some way “Son of God,” on the basis of his having no human father. The Qur’an takes a very different , even dramatically opposite, view, however: “It is not for God to take a son. Glory be to Him! When He decides a matter, He simply says ‘Be,’ and it is.” Any idea of sonship is therefore rejected, and this is repeated immediately after the positive affirmations of 4:171: “God is one! Glory be to Him, that He should have a son!” And the objection here is combined with a vigorous rebuttal of any reference to “three” in connection with God: “Say not ‘three.’ Stop! God is one!” so that any Christian reference to a concept such as that of there being three persons in the godhead appears to be prohibited.” [34] (emphasis added)

Associate Professor James E. Lindsay of Colorado State University writes:

“Christians are condemned for having corrupted the Injil (Gospel) given to Jesus, for claiming that Jesus is God’s son, and especially for the doctrine of the Trinity, which the Qur’an describes as polytheism, the worst of all sins:

People of the Book, do not transgress the bounds of your religion. Speak nothing but the truth about God. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was no more than God’s apostle and His Word which He cast to Mary: a spirit from Him. So believe in God and His apostles and do not say: “Three.” Forbear, for it shall be better for you. God is but one God. God forbid that He should have a son! (Qur’an 4:171)” [35] (emphasis added)

Professor of World Religions at Luther Seminary in Germany, Paul Varo Martinson writes:

   Finally, the Qur’an accuses Christians of honoring Jesus as the “Son of God,” while also honoring his mother Mary as the “Mother of God.” The Qur’an sees this as further treason against the faith in the one God, as in fact faith in three Gods (Father, Mother, Son). It makes a great effort to clear Jesus of the accusation that he had possibly evoked this heresy (Sura 5:116).

   It is also the conviction of the Christian churches that faith in three gods is an aberration. But the fact that this rejection is expanded in the Qur’an to include the Christian belief in the Trinity (God in three persons) makes theological discussion difficult.

  The Qur’an not only rejects the Trinity but also the central Christian confessions that are connected to the person of Jesus… [36] (emphasis added)

In the article we have already shown that the Trinity of mainstream Christianity is indeed the worship of three gods in the guise of monotheism. No amount of philosophical gymnastics can change the fact that in the Islamic perspective putting any other person together with God amounts to polytheism. Though Christians may officially declare abhorrence to the concept of three gods or tritheism they are in fact knowingly or unknowingly believers in three deities. The important point that is observed in the above quotation is Martinson’s recognition that the Qur’an does indeed reject the Trinity as held by mainstream Christians.

Professor of Religious Studies, John Morreall and Kenan Professor of Religion and Humanities, Tamara Sonn both at the College of William and Mary  state:

“Likewise, the Qur’an rejects the idea of the Trinity, stressing the importance of recognizing that there is only one God (4:171; 5:73).” [37] (emphasis added)

Author Keith Akers writes:

“Jesus in the Qur’an himself rejects his own right to be exalted to the status of being a “partner” to Allah (Qur’an 5:116) and the Christian belief in the Trinity is explicitly rejected (Qur’an 5:72, 5:73).” [38] (emphasis added)

Bruce Bickel and Stan Jantz in their Bruce and Stan’s Pocket Guide to Islam write the following:

There is no Arabic word for “three-in-one” or “threefold,” so it may be understandable that a language difficulty creates some misunderstanding of the Trinity. But Islam’s rejection of the Trinity is much more than just a linguistic hurdle. The Qur’an specifically attacks the concept. In his book The Koran Interpreted A.J. Arberry says that the Qur’an emphasizes that Christians are unbelievers because they accept the historic Christian doctrine of the Trinity. He quotes the Qur’an as saying:

They are unbelievers who say, “God is the Third of Three.” No God is there but one God. If they refrain not from what they say, there shall afflict those of them that disbelieve with a painful chastisement.

It is as if portions of the Qur’an were intentionally written to attack the Christian belief in God as a Trinity. [39] (emphasis added)

The Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism and Jewish Culture edited by Knight Professor of Humanities and Director of the Harold Schnitzer Family Program in Judaic Studies at the University of Oregon  Judith R. Baskin has the following in an article on ‘Islam and Judaism’:

“The concept of monotheism was not unknown in pre-Islamic Arabia, and Islam, like Judaism, explicitly rejects the Christian doctrine of the Trinity (Q. 4:171).” [40] (emphasis added)

Early Muslims from the first century of the Hijrah or Islamic calender were already well acquainted with the Trinity. Herald Suermann writes:

“The History of the Patriachs does not report any doctrinal dispute between Christians and Muslims until the time of Patriach Simon 1, the successor of John III. This dispute has to do with Trinitarian theology. Of course, polemic against Christian Trinitarian theology is as old as the Christological polemic and is already to be found in the Qur’an.” [41] (emphasis added)

David Cook writes:

“Of much greater importance is the fact that the Qur’anic citations preserved at the Dome of Rock in Jerusalem – the earliest Muslim monument to survive, and dated to 72/691 – are either concerned with Jesus’ status or are polemics against the Trinity.” [42] (emphasis added)

What the above indicates is that verses from the Qur’an were already in use in the early Islamic era against the Trinity. Professor Sidney H. Griffith of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Languages and Literatures at the Catholic University of America in his contribution to the same book writes:

“Muslims have been in dialogue with Christians from the very beginnings of Islam. Indeed, the Qur’an itself presumes in its audience a familiary not only with the biblical narratives of Abraham, Moses and Jesus, along with the other prophets and messengers of God, but also with Christian doctrines and practices. In the Qur’an the dialogue with Christians most prominently takes the form of a critique of these very  doctrines and practices; in particular it criticizes and admonishes the Christians in connection with their doctrines of the Trinity and Incarnation. The most succinct and direct passage in this regard redas as follows:

O ‘People of the Book’, do not exaggerate in your religion. Do not say about God anything but the truth. The messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only God’s messenger, and His Word, which he cast into Mary, and a spirit from Him. Believe in God and His messengers. Do not say, ‘Three’. Stop it! It will be better for you. God is but a single God; He is too exalted to have offspring. (al-Nisa’ (4) 171)

Not surprisingly, this verse figures prominently in the apologetic and polemical texts that Christians wrote in Syriac and Arabic in the early Islamic period.” [43]

Thus, in Griffith’s understanding the Qur’an does indeed directly address and criticise the orthodox Christian doctrine of the Trinity proffering 4:171 as an example of that.

Associate Professor of Religion at Furman University Greenville, South Carolina, Charles Kimball writes:

On eleven occassions, the Qur’an speaks of Jesus as the Messiah; in seven verses, the “Spirit of God” is directly associated with Jesus. The precise meaning of these titles is not clearly explained. In one passage both terms are used as the unity of God is emphasized for those in danger of going astray. This text specifically addresses fundamental Christian tenets:

O People of the Book, do not exceed beyond the bounds in your religion or say things about God, save the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, is only a Messenger of God, and His word which He conveyed to Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in God and His messengers, and say not, “Three.” Stop. It is better for you. God is only one God. It is far removed from His majesty that He should have a son. (Qur’an 4:171)

Jesus is exalted in the Qur’an as one of the greatest , even unique, among God’s prophets. The points of conflict, according to the Qur’an, arise in relation to the erroneous teachings propagated by Christians. In fact, the Qur’an contains both a harsh critique of and kind words for the followers of Jesus. At times, Christians are chided for having distorted the revelation of God. They are called kuffar (those who reject or say ‘no’ to God; infidels”), people whose doctrines flirt with the most heinous of all sins, shirk (“associating something with God”). numerous passages warn against people whose dangerous doctrines are an affront to God. Most notably, the divinity of Christ and the doctrine of the Trinity are rejected. Both are seen as compromising the unity and transcendence of God.” [44] (emphasis added)

Numerous authorities including Muslims and non-Muslims agree that the verses discussed in the article are indeed emphatically rejecting the Christian concept of the Trinity. Indeed the Trinity is an idea that is eschewed by the Qur’an.

References:

[1] Louay Fatoohi (2009). The Mystery of the Historical Jesus: The Messiah in the Qur’an, the Bible and Historical Sources. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust. p. 432

[2] Palmer, W. (1841). A Fifth Letter to N. Wiseman, D.D. Containing a Reply to his Remarks on Letter 1 with Additional Proofs of the Idolatry and Superstition of Romanism. London, England: John Henry Parker. p. 44

[3] Refer to White vs. Fastiggi, The Doctrine of Mary Debate, www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3ie46V2wfw; Pacwa vs. Martin, Debate on Mary, www.youtube.com/watch?v=tClS31hNmII&feature=results_main&playnext=1&list=PLA358A1FB46051843

[4] Abdul Majid Daryabadi (n.d.). Tafsirul Qur’an: Translation and Commentary of the Holy Qur’an, Vol. 2. Lucknow, India: Academy of Islamic Research and Publications, Nadwatul Ulama. pp. 20-21

[5] Parrinder, G. (1965). Jesus in the Qur’an. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 134-135

[6] Abi Abdullah Muhammad Bin Ahmad al-Qurtubi (n.d.) al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Qur’an, Vol. 5. Beirut, Lebanon: Darul Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah. p. 161

[7] Watt, W. M. (2008). Companion to the Qur’an: Based on the Arberry Translation, Vol. 10. Abingdon: Routledge. P. 72

[8] Fulton, W. (1921). Tritheism. In James Hastings, John A. Selbie & Louis H. Gray (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. New York: T. & T. Clark. p. 462

[9]Ibid. p. 463

[10] Gibbon, E. (1806). The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Vol. 9. London: Vernor, Hood, & Sharpe. p. 261

[11] Wherry, E. M. (1885). A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran: Comprising Sale’s Translation and Preliminary Discourse, with Additional Notes and Emendations, Vol. 2. London: Trubner & Co. p. 116

[12] Sale, G. (n.d.). The Koran: Commonly Called the Alcoran of Muhammed; translated into English Immediately from the Original Arabic; With Explanatory Notes. P. 25

[13] Gibbon, E. Op. Cit.

[14] Gibbon, E. Op. Cit.

[15] Wherry, E. M. Op. Cit.

[16] Syed Abul A’la Maududi (1992). The Meaning of the Qur’an, Vol. II. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications (Pvt.) Limited. p. 194

[17] McKim, D. K. (1996). Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 288

[18] Ford, J. T. (2006). Glossary of Theological Terms. Winnona, Minnesota: Saint Mary’s Press. p. 188

[19] Lukefahr, O. (1996). The Catechism Handbook. U.S. : Liguori Publications. pp. 16-17

[20] Louay Fatoohi Op. Cit. p. 435

[21] Fulton, W. Op. Cit. p. 463

[22] Roey, V. R. & Allen, P. (n.d.). Orientalia Lovanensia Analecta: Monophysite Texts of the Sixth Century. Belgium: Peeters. p. 124

[23] William, X. (2006). Economics, Ethics, Religions & Superstitions. Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse. p. 234

[24] Hopkins, S. (n.d.). The System of Doctrines Contained in Divine Revelation, Explained and Defended. Showing their Consistence and Connection with each other, Vol. 1. Boston: Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. Andrews. p. 444

[25] Living Stream Ministry Staff (n.d.). Modalism Tritheism or the Pure Revelation of the Triune God according to the Bible. (n.d.) p. 6

[26] Dunham, Scott A. (2008). The Trinity and Creation in Augustine: An Ecological Analysis. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 41

[27] “A form of Tritheism is represented by the doctrine of Arius. In Arius’ formulation, the Father was fully God, the Son had the status of the leading creature, and the Spirit was inferior to the Son.” Living Stream Ministry Op. Cit. p. 10

[28] Louay Fatoohi Op. Cit. 435

[29] Abdul Majid Daryabadi Op. Cit. Vol. 1.  pp. 393-394

[30] Gibbon, E. Op. Cit. pp. 261-262

[31] Muhammad Husayn Haykal (2008). The Life of Muhammad (Ismail Faruqi, Trans.). Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Islamic Book Trust.

[32] Donner, F.M. (2010). Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam. United States: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 58-59

[33] Kaltner, J. (2011). Introducing the Qur’an for Today’s Reader. United States: Fortress Press. p. 154

[34] Goddard, H. (2005). Islam. In Leslie Houlden (ed.), Jesus: The Complete Guide. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 404

[35] Linday, J.E. (2005). Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 117-118

[36] Martinson, P.V. (ed.)(1994). Islam: An Introduction for Christians (Stefanie O. Cox, trans.). Minneapolis, Minnesota: Augsburg Fortress Publishers. p. 188

[37] Morreall, J. & Sonn, T. (2012). The Religion Toolkit: A Complete Guide to Religious Studies. United States: Wiley-Blackwell

[38] Akers, K. (2000). The Lost Religion of Jesus: Simple Living and Nonviolence in Early Christianity. New York: Lantern Books. p. 207

[39] Bickel, B. & Jantz, S. (2002). Bruce and Stan’s Pocket Guide to Islam. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House Publishers. p. 41

[40] Baskin, J.R. (ed.)(2011). The Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism and Jewish Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 284

[41] Suermann, H. (2006).Copts and the Islam of the Seventh Century. In Emmanouela Grypeou, Mark Swanson & David Thomas, The Encounter of Eastern Christianity with Early Islam. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill. p. 105

[42] Cook, D. Ibid. p. 190

[43] Griffith, S.H. A ‘Melkite’ Arabic Text from Sinai and the Doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation is ‘Arab Orthodox’ Apologetics. Ibid. p. 277

[44] Kimball, C. (1990). Striving Together: A Way Forward in Christian-Muslim Relations. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books. pp. 45-46

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18 Responses to “Does the Qur’an misrepresent the Trinity?”

  1. Jesus says:

    Well analysed article.

    Few words on Deuteronomy 6:4-5
    “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.”

    Verse 5 says “Love your God with all your heart and with all your soul and strength”

    We can love God with all our heart,soul and strength only if he is one person not 3 persons in one because our love will be distributed among the 3 persons.

    If Christians say they love the triune God as a whole with all their heart,soul and strength ,then also they are loving 3 persons combined with all their heart and not individual person with all heart.

    • Ibn Anwar says:

      Jzk akhi. By the way did you check out the updated article on the “salah” of Allah? I have included your suggestion in the addendum section ;). The above article took me sometime to write i.e. several hours. I am glad you approve of it. 😀

      • Jesus says:

        There is not a new material which is kept on our site which i do not check .I check your site on nearly daily basis.

        The addendum on ‘salah’ is too scholarly and thanks for adding my name to it brother.

        Coming to this article it is obvious that it is prepared after thorough search ,citing 30 references speaks a lot .May God bless for your hard work on this .

        • Ibn Anwar says:

          I have added ten references to the addendum in the above article 😀

          • Jesus says:

            Great references brother.

            Coming to “the Trinity of mainstream Christianity is indeed the worship of three gods in the guise of monotheism. No amount of philosophical gymnastics can change the fact that in the Islamic perspective putting any other person together with God amounts to polytheism”

            Very rightly said .Jesus Christ himself told to direct the worship to the father never did he said to direct to father ,son and holy spirit.

  2. Adam says:

    Wow..amazing article. Very impressive. Keep up the good work!

  3. rocko says:

    the gospels have jesus say THAT THE OLD TESTAMENT predicted his MURDER and many christians use the PASSAGES from isiaah trying to prove that jesus’ crucifixion is foreshadowed in the ot, but DOES THE SUFFERING SERVANT DIE in the passages christians MISUSE?

    LETS SEE

    http://religionatthemargins.co.....g-messiah/

    HAHAHAHAHAH

    http://religionatthemargins.co.....g-messiah/

    HAHAAH , WHERE ARE U BULL?

    http://religionatthemargins.co.....g-messiah/

    HAHHAAAHAAHA , even JEWISH INTERPRETATIONS OF THE OT DON’T HAVE A DEAD MESSIAH , lol , pure ANNIHALATION OF christian PAGANS.

  4. Jesus says:

    Brother Salaam

    I want to know why did Allah said ” how can he have a son when he dosent have a wife ” ?

    Christians object to it as they say ‘ son of God ‘ is used in a unnatural way in the Bible , so the Quran misrepresent it.

    Please explain brother

  5. Aibindiye Abdul Razak says:

    Asallam allaikum brother,
    great work dear Ibn Anwar, may Allah reward you beyond our expectations. Brother can i reproduce your article in had copies to help my friends who hardly access net? I have just landed on this site and so far the best for me. Muslims everywhere love you!!!!

    • Ibn Anwar says:

      Wa’alaikum salam warahmatullah,
      Yes, of course you may reproduce it in hard copy if you wish. Spread the word akhi. Do continue to visit us insha’Allah and I am glad you approve of the site :D. Jzk.

  6. ROCKY says:

    did you tell the people to take yourself and your mother as gods BESIDE ALLAH?

    QUOTE:

    In fact, new texts and re-readings of existing texts concerning Mary’s fate have led Stephen J. Shoemaker, an historian specializing in Late Antiquity, to conclude (“Epiphanius of Salamis, The Kollyridians, and Early Church Dormition Narratives: The Cult of the Virgin in the Fourth Century,” Journal of Early Christian Studies 16, no. 3 [Fall 2008]:374):

    “Finally, new developments in the early history of Marian piety have identified cultic veneration of the Virgin much earlier than many scholars had previously thought, bringing to light long overlooked Marian texts that offer potential clarification of the ritual practices ascribed to the Kollyridians.”

    According to Epiphanius, a heretical Christian sect known as the Kollyridians were said to offer loaves of bread to Mary. As Epiphanius phrases it (Panarion 78.23.4; Williams edition 2.618):
    “…certain Thracian women there in Arabia bake a loaf in the name of the Ever-virgin and gather together, and they attempt an excess and undertake a forbidden and blasphemous act in the holy Virgin’s name, celebrating offices in her name with women officiants.”

    So, Epiphanius himself attests to the existence of a form a worship that assumes that Mary is alive and able to appreciate such sacrifices.
    Shoemaker (“Epiphanius of Salamis…”p. 376) adds:

    “Marian veneration does not appear, as some would have it, only rather suddenly in the fifth century…Marian intercession is also evidenced by a papyrus fragment from fourth-century Egypt (or perhaps even the third century) that preserves an early prayer addressed to the Virgin. The earliest narratives of the Virgin’s Dormition also date to the later fourth century at the latest, bearing witness to a fully developed Marian piety already by this time.”

  7. Waseem says:

    Not too long ago, Bassam Zawadi had a debate with James White on a similar topic: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8pQLzCJDdQs

    • Ibn Anwar says:

      Ys, I have seen the debate. I believe my article successfully refutes James White’s flimsy position.

      • semsav12 says:

        James just over-confidently regurgitates arguments orientalists have been using since forever. Unfortunately, like with the relationship that Richard Dawkins has with his followers, the Same is true for White and his acolytes, sycophants find arrogance attractive.

  8. zbhotto says:

    And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant. [019.032].

    Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute.

    [019.034]

    These two verses can be used to explain Jesus AS was obedient to his mother and hence if one worship Jesus inherently worship his mother. I know this is an extreme explanation. However, if we were to confront devils among mankind who leave no option off the table to insult Prophet Muhammad (SAW) we should use extreme interpretation of the above two verses to proof that Jesus was obedient to his mother and old testament law for disobeying mother applies in the case of Jesus. Hence Koran’s claim about people worshiping Mary is 100% accurate.

  9. DefendChrist says:

    Hi
    I thought Muslims didn’t believe the bible we have is the real thing, so why quote from a corrupt book to prove your point? Where does the bible teach three gods?

    • Ibn Anwar says:

      Did you actually read the very detailed article? The article goes into depths to show and explain that despite Christian theological manipulations and word games, the Qur’anic theological view is that the Christianity Trinity of any form (modalism, monarchianism, sebellianism etc.) is tritheistic in nature. And the article was written to illustrate rather beautifully that the Qur’an in its usual concise way, cuts the disease at its very roots. Rather than enter into ambiguities and complexities as to which Trinity is wrong, it attacks the fundamental concept of “three” which is at the foundation of every form of Trinity conceivable. This is the miracle of the Qur’an where it eloquently refutes multiple concepts in one stroke.

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